Thursday, 22 August 2019

The Honey Bees are Beneficial

Of the many tiny animals that share the planet earth with us. However, there are only a few insects that people usually accept as beneficial. The most are regarded as disgusting or frightful.  Insects often garner a bad reputation because of their unfamiliar appearance and habits. Honey bees are, maybe the insects with the best public image.

We see them as industrious (busy as a bee) and we appreciate their main product, honey, as setting the standard for all that is ecstatically wonderful and sweet.  Honey is only likely because thousands of bees harvest the nectar from flowers converting the sugary liquid to enjoyable honey.  And honey bees pollinate a vast variety of food crops.

Honey Bees Types?

In general, bees can be separated into two groups, the bees which are naturally social insects, and the ones which are solitary. All bees collect nectar and pollen and make honey, but the solitary bees make only enough honey for themselves and their progeny. Each mated solitary bee makes a nest with approximately ten brood cells.

The social bees, such as the European honeybee, make large stocks of honey, most of which can be removed without damaging the viability of the hive. Solitary bees make their homes in twigs, in the ground, on adobe walls, in mud, in locations where other animals have already made holes, in wood, cardboard, another material.

Most solitary bees overwinter in their nests and re-emerge in the spring when temperatures and other climatic conditions are appropriate for their spring activity. Almost all the genera of solitary bees are beneficial for fruit crops

Why We Love Honey?

Honey is a healthy food as enthusiast sees honey as an alternative to sugar. Many home remedy proponents extol the use of honey as a cure for various ailments.  We even call our loved ones Honey as a term of endearment. The Quran is full of positive references to honey. 

The Bible says (the land of milk and honey) and several ancient and modern works refer to bees and honey. Prehistoric cave drawings show people harvesting honey from wild bee colonies and ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics depict early beekeeping activities. With the good and sweet there is a down side people get stung sometimes. Even Winnie the Pooh found that bees could get a little nasty when disturbed.

But, in general, bees and their honey have a long and well-established history of acceptance and respect. In agro forestry techniques such as windbreaks, alley cropping, and riparian buffer strips, tree and shrub species can be selected to favor bee forage. Raising honeybees in forests, windbreaks, tree alleys and riparian buffer strips improves the direct economic return from applying these management techniques.

Honey Bees are Important Pollinators

While honey is nice, the honey bee’s real importance lies in its performance as a pollinator. The value of just the almonds produced in California each year with the help of honey bees is more than twice the value of all the honey produced in the United States in any given year.

The apple and blueberry, watermelon, cantaloupe, cucumber, cranberry and many other crops benefit from bee pollination.  More than 100 agricultural crops in the United States are pollinated by bees.  About a third of the food Americans eat comes directly from the pollination honey bees perform.

Moreover, heritable behavioral polymorphisms of the honey bee, such as pollen-hoarding, can enhance fruit and seed set by a floral host (e.g. cranberry). But only if more favored pollen hosts are absent or infrequent. Then, honey bees' broad polylactic, flight range, and daily idiosyncrasies in floral fidelity will obscure specific pollen-foraging differences at a given floral host, even among paired colonies in a seemingly uniform agricultural setting. It has been estimated that every third bite of food is dependent, directly or indirectly, on the active pollination of a food plant.

The Killer Bees (AHB)

Some of the tales stated about this bee are incredible.  The Africanized honey bee (AHB) or killer bee as it is sometimes called, is said to attack for no good reason. This is a bee that is hard to handle for beekeepers who want to move colonies around to pollinate various crops.  Stories suggest that the AHB often invades the unmanaged colonies of normal bees and takes them over in a sort of insect blitzkrieg.

The AHB or killer bee has been depicted in science fiction movies like “The Swarm,” “The Savage Bees” and in the Fox TV movie “Deadly Invasion.  The Killer Bee Nightmare, “threatening our lives, our property, and our whole way of life. There is no question this bee is more defensive as well as aggressive to protecting its home and beekeepers and others have gotten stung multiple times in accidents.

Irrespective of myths to the contrary, Africanized honey bees do not fly out in angry swarms to arbitrarily attack unsuccessful victims. Monitoring with bees allows us also to evidence the application of molecules, not permitted under certain circumstances or even forbidden.

Honey Bees Poisoning Symptoms

The most shared symptom of bee poisoning is the appearance of excessive numbers of dead bees in front of the hives. Another common symptom is lack of foraging bees. Ferociousness in bees may be caused by most pesticides. Stupefaction, paralysis, and abnormal activities of bees are usually caused by chlorinated hydrocarbons and organ phosphorus insecticides.

Regurgitation of the honey stomach contents is often caused by poisoning with organo phosphorus insecticides. Bees may perform abnormal communication dances on the horizontal landing board at the hive entrance while under the influence of insecticide poisoning. Disorganized behavior patterns may lead to lack of recognition of affected field bees by guard bees.

Tuesday, 2 July 2019

How Does Tsunami Formed

The peoples often think How Tsunami Occurs? The tsunami is a series of ocean waves, which carry water to the large, every now and then reaching heights of over 100 feet about 30.5 meters, to the earth. These walls of water can reason widespread destruction when it crashes countries. These gigantic waves generally caused by large underwater earthquake tectonic plate boundaries. When the bottom is flat limit add to or reduce suddenly moves above the water, and that will start the tsunami waves.
Most of the tsunami, 80 % occur in the Pacific “Ring of Fire”, a geologically active tectonic movements are regular in volcanoes and earthquakes. Tsunamis can also be reasoned by landslides or underwater volcanic eruptions. They can even be launched, as they were frequently in the ancient past of the Earth, with the result of a huge meteorite plunging into the ocean.
The tsunamis in the race to the sea up to 500 miles about 805 kilometers an hour as fast as a jet.  At that pace, can traverse the whole expanse of the Pacific Ocean, less than a day. And their long wavelengths mean that they lose very petite energy along the way. In the deep ocean, tsunami waves can come into sight only a foot or so high. But the move toward of the coast and enter shallower water, they slow down and start to grow in power and height.
Top of the waves move quicker than their funds do, causing them to rise sharply. Tsunami waves from the bottom, below the top of the lower wave, often arrive at the shore first. When it happens, it generates a vacuum effect that sucks the coastal sea water and exposed to the harbor and the sea floor. This withdrawal of sea water is a significant warning sign of a tsunami wave as crest factor, and the enormous amount of water usually hit the beach five minutes or so. To be familiar with this phenomenon can be lifesaving.
A tsunami usually consists of a series of waves, normally called a wave train, so destructive force may be compounded as consecutive waves reach the shore. People know that a tsunami should keep in mind that the risk is not past the first wave and would need an official notification that it is secure to vulnerable sites. A few tsunamis are not on the coast as gigantic breaking waves, but more like a tidal surge flooding quickly in coastal areas.
The most excellent defense against a tsunami early warning that permits people to seek higher ground. The Tsunami Warning System, a coalition of 26 nations headquartered in Hawaii, maintains a network of tide gauges and seismic equipment to recognize tsunamis at sea similar systems have been projected to protect coastal areas in the world. Read More – Spectacular Golden Chains of Laburnum

Thursday, 23 May 2019

The Baya Weaver Bird (Ploceus philippinus)

The variety that builds the more elaborate nest is the Baya (Ploceusp. philippinus). The Baya Weaver Bird is also found all over the subcontinent, Java, and Sumatra. The male resembles the female during the "off" season but after the spring and autumn molts, he assumes canary-colored crown and other yellow patches, well distributed over most of his otherwise brown and white body.
Baya Weaver Bird decoration loses when their is no nesting to occupy his attention. The bird’s flocks are found in scrub, grasslands, cultivated areas, and secondary growth. Also, these birds are best identified for hanging retort-shaped nests woven from leaves.  The Baya Weavers love to live and build in colonies and usually select for the purpose of the neighborhood of a convenient tank or of a terraced rice field.
Being graminivorous animals they find that paddy fields furnish valuable granaries for a food supply. The nests found in the Northern Province of Sri Lanka almost habitually hang from the north and east exposures of the trees. In which they built and thus are least endangered by the battering winds of the Southwest Monsoon.
Though, the much has been written about the amazing nests of Ploceus. They're are several interesting points connected with there construction that have escaped most observers or that do not appear to have impressed writers sufficiently and propose with the aid of a series of photographs taken in situ to point out some of these curious happenings.
While the Tailor Bird does her best to conceal her nest (in which she succeeds an admirably) the Weavers build there homes quite in the open where they can be seen of all men. They're are a number of nests in a colony that had settled in a large tree growing about the center of a Sri Lanka. They came and went as if no human being were near them.
Wherever placed the main objects sought shelter from bad weather and safety from enemies. These provisions are reflected in the suspension of the nests on the sheltered side of a tree on branches detached from other limbs and by the peculiar form and swinging character of the nesting houses.
They're is, however, one precaution always taken the nest hangs free in air and swings from the tree on which it is built in such fashion that it cannot be approached from below or from neighboring branches and when that end is accomplished the birds may suspend there nests from quite low points, often not more then fifteen feet from the ground.
The terminals of palm fronds and other branchlets about twenty feet from the earth, or surface of a pond, our favorite sites. According to some writers, the Weavers, instead of building a new nest once or twice a year, may repair an old one, the chief evidence of which is the color contrast between the nest and the Old grass employed in the process.
Indeed a tree colony of several dozen nests may exhibit at the same time a collection of structures that vary in age from old specimens battered by months of wind and rain to new and fresh nests on which the builders are still working. In some of the latter from one to four white eggs may be hatching; from others issue little chattering cries that betray the presence of hungry fledglings.
The shape of the Ploceine nest has been likened to various objects retorts, inverted bottles, flasks, etc. But to Newton's similitude comes nearest to it.' He compares it to a stocking hung up by the toe, the heel enlarged to receive the eggs, as entrance and exit are made through the leg. The material out of which the nests are made is mostly pliant grass stems and other tough fibers, especially strips of palm fronds.
The bird's strip from the leaves of palms, plantains, agaves, and other stringy plants fine but very strong threads for the weaving process. The bird collects them in this manner. Usually, bird bites a small piece from the base of the palm, sisal, hemp, or another fibrous plant, repeats the incision towards jerks his head away from the leaf, thus tearing off a fine cord, perhaps a line in breadth that corresponding length to the distance between the two incisions.
It examined with a lens this weaving material from many nests and believes the description to be most accurate. Moreover, watched the birds repairing the exterior and arranging the material of there nests and have often seen them tugging at a length of the fiber, part of which has already been woven into the nest. Also seen them flying in the air with the free end of a strand in there bills, so that it might be drawn taut and smooth before inserting it beneath other fibers for the support of the nest wall.
As a preliminary to the construction of the nest proper, the birds wrap a considerable amount of fibrous material around a chosen limb or frond. Often it is as much as three or four feet from the top of the pendant next to the further end of this anchorage, thus securing a firm hold upon the tree. The small strips are not only wound around the branch but are plaited together so securely that it is impossible with an ordinary effort to separate them.
The plaiting is than continuous downwards from the branch to form a stout aerial stalk from 3 or 4 inches to a foot in length. The end of which is evidently expanded into the globular structure of the nest proper. The long diameter of this bulb is from 5 to 6 inches; it's short diameter about four.
Having shaped this upper chamber and located the future egg chain bet, the birds next build a strong, compactly woven transverse band or bridge that divides the lower part of the space into two unequal chambers. In every large colony are found what looks like unfinished nests that do not in the building get farther then this perch or roost stage, looking, like an inverted basket with a handle.
So far as they go, these structures seem strong and well-finished, giving rise to many speculations as to there status. Are they made in an excess of home-building zeal by the male bird upon who's feet and beak time hangs heavily? Or, are they shelters to which he may retreat and rest secure from the torrential Monsoon?
The main argument favoring this hypothesis is of course. The finished appearance in various cases of the canopy itself, it's thick, smoothly plaited walls. Hence, the rounded edges of the perch, and absence of any attempt to completing the base of the globular chambers or the entrances pout. It is suggested that the canopy is a nest deserted after partial construction on account of some fault in it an egg chamber too small, a neck not strong enough, etc.
Whether the canopy is deliberately planned as a shelter for one or both birds, or whether it is only a partially built and deserted nest, their can be no doubt that the non-incubating male has been seen occupying the structure and using it as a perching convenience and their is no doubt that, whatever the original purpose of these structures, the canopy does make an admirable refuge from wind, rain and hot sun.
The illustrations show more plainly then any description of the forms and the relative size of the completed nests and so-called canopies both before and after removal from the tree-colony. One colony, placed in a Halamba tree, furnished four canopies, as well as two full-lengths and one short nest. On the ground beneath the tree were picked up evidently detached by the wind--five full length and two short-tube nests.
In another tree, it can be found seven canopies and five nests. Three egg chambers held a single egg and two had two eggs each. All the canopies had, on or near there margins. Farther the small lumps of dried mud, about which something farther will be said; on the other hand, very few nests showed these deposits. The lowest structure was 12 feet from the ground. The average was 16 feet and the highest about 25 feet.
A small but for many reasons interesting colony had nested in a Damba tree. It numbered two canopies one definitely unfinished nest, one long (with it's entrance tube fifteen inches) and two completed but shorter nests. The long nest contained fledgling’s inches.
The length of the shortest tube was 3 inches; the others varied from 6 to 15 inches.  The circumference of the smallest nest was 14 inches; of the largest 18.50 inches. The longest nest measured, overall, 37 inches; the shortest 17 inches.
As for the four canopies, the total length of the shortest was 12.75 inches; of the longest, 16.50 inches. The height of the chamber varied from 4 to 6.50 inches. Thus the width of the bridge or perch is one half to one inch. The diameters are the two entrances from 2.25 by 3.75 inches to 3.50 by 2.50 Inches.
The circumference of the largest canopy was 20 inches; of the smallest 15 inches. Hence one sees that the nests and canopies vary noticeably in size and capacity. The smaller of the two cavities divided by the transverse roost or perch is the one continued into the long tube-like entrance. As soon as when the egg-chambers finished. Female bird confines her concentration to the completion of the interior of the nest and leaves the work on it's exterior to the male.
They seem to work together, although the male gathers most of the building material which he pushes through the walls. It is than woven back and forth as long as possible that is until thick, tough, solid, basket-like walls are the result. The male bird now completes the entrance-spout strengthens the walls of the upper nest and, in some instances begins a second nest like the structure already mentioned. During the nest building, both birds enjoy them thoroughly.
Also, the male bird often sings a little song when he joins with his mate in weaving the nest material. Even after the eggs have been laid and the female has commenced incubating the male continues to lengthen the entrance tube and to put what he regards as the finishing touches on his house.
Also, it is often seen him diligently pushing fibers into place and pulling them back and forth on the surface of the nest to the accompaniment of a sweet little warble. I have never found a smooth firm margin on the end of any entrance tube; it is always frayed, thin and loosely woven, presenting a decidedly unfinished appearance.
The length of the cylindrical entrance tube--generally two inches in diameter varies greatly, as will be seen in the illustrations. Indeed the longest one I ever saw was in the private aviary of Mr. Shore-Bailey of Westbury, England, who has been very successful in breeding these birds in captivity. One of his nests has the entrance tube more then thirty inches long.
The length, strength, and thickness of the various external components of the Weaver Bird's nest depend largely upon the building capacity of the male bird. As with male humanity, this varies greatly. Long after the female begins to sit he may continue his task of nest building. If he is possessed of the building urge he strengthens the attachment of the structure to the tree above, adding more strands of fiber to and lengthening the rope that is already wound about the branch above.
This suspension cord is also increased in sustaining power by short fibers of palm or agave, plaited with strands already in position; and the walls of the nest chambers themselves are consolidated by similar material worked into there thickness. Meantime the tubular entrance is extended and the upper two-thirds of it farther strengthened.
When the young birds are first hatched they are probably fed by the parents with food brought in by way of the long tube but in some instances, at least, opening remade by the male bird from the outside directly into the egg chamber and the fledglings re-fed through these holes. One of the most fascinating habits of the Baya is the manner in which he enters and leaves the nest. I have watched the process many times and have always gazed in wonderment.
Even the so-called Chimney Swift entering his home may learn something from a bird that, apparently without agitating the shaky structure of his domicile flies up to the narrow chimney-like structure and out again without hesitation. I have seen the male in the midst of a job of repairing the roof suddenly take it into his head to visit his brooding wife. Flying or tumbling down the side of the nest he spread his wings just in time to stop his fall a foot or two below the entrance. Apparently, without effort, he turned in midair and shot, like lightning, into the cylinder above him.
Some do not believe any other bird could have done it. Legge, who has wings at the moment of entering the tube and runs up it to the egg chamber. Be that as it may, Ploceusis secure in his home, for he is certainly the only animal that can fly, crawl, run, or creep up the smooth, fragile, tube that leads to the interior of his nest. The completed nest is a firm springy contrivance and so well woven that when thoroughly dried it is used by the natives for filling mattresses.
Sometimes during nest building, the birds bring in small lumps of wet clay which they stick to a variety of parts of the interior of the nest and it's walls. So, it found curious deposits in varying quantities in almost all the nests examined. One had about a tablespoonful of plastic mud deposited on three diverse localities, including one small patch in the egg chamber. On the other hand, a few had no mud deposits and others had very little. Just what these clay deposits mean is by no means clear.
Indeed none of the numerous explanations is satisfactory, especially reject the generally accepted theory that the mud is employed to balance the nest in the wind, and to prevent it's being blown about while tile birds are entering and leaving it; nor can I adopt Layard's guess that tile birds use the clay as a sort of whetstone on which to sharpen there bills. In the first place, half a tablespoon of dried mud plastered midway of a large and longs winging nest can have no influence whatever upon it's equilibrium in even a mild breeze.
Than again, many nests have no mud in there structure at all. Of course, the natives, as usual, have there interpretation of the phenomenon--the bird uses the clay as a candlestick on which is stuck glowworms to lighten the darkness of the nest! Perhaps I may add another and to my mind more plausible theory-•-the habit is the survival in Ploceus of some ancestor who built his nest partly or entirely of clay.
The black clay deposits in Baya's nest, than serve no useful purpose at all. They are just vestigial remains of a household economy, as the sleeve buttons on one's coat! One is reminded of stone what similar example in the habits of birds completely unrelated to the Weaver. But this genus is in an evolutionary sense flanked on the one hand by genera (Micropus, Taehornisw) hose nest material is partly mucus and partly other material, and on the other by genera who's nests have little or no mucoid matter in there makeup.
However that may be, our Weaver Bird is a highly intelligent animal, and whether one attributes his remarkable house-building to instinct, to reason, or, as is most probable, to a combination of these faculties, he makes a very attractive captive and an engaging presence in an aviary large enough to afford him plenty of room in which to build and breed.
He is, though, impatient of avian relatives, and is very likely to quarrel with other birds placed with him in the same flight. T. B. Fletcher (Birds of an Indian Garden, 1924) tells us that Among the natives of Punjab a popular rhyme contrasts the helpless monkey with the resourceful; house-building Weaver.
In that, the former cannot protect himself from the weather in spite of his human hands and feet. This verse is quoted for the benefit of small boys and girls who object to learn, just as the busy bee is held up for infantile admiration of Western lands." Read More - Red Breasted Robin – Friendly Garden Visitors
[caption id="attachment_28440" align="aligncenter" width="640"]Female P. p. philippinus Female P. p. philippinusMale burmanicus showing bright yellow crown Male burmanicus showing bright yellow crownMale P. p. philippinus (India) Male P. p. philippinus (India)Male philippinus displaying at nest Male philippinus displaying at the nestNests hanging from palm (Phoenix sp.) fronds Nests hanging from palm (Phoenix sp.) frondsWhite-rumped munia using an abandoned nest White-rumped munia using an abandoned nest

Saturday, 27 April 2019

What are Drunken Trees

What are Drunken Trees?
Drunken trees are a stand of trees displaced from their normal vertical alignment. This most commonly occurs in northern subarctic taiga forests of black spruce under which intermittent permafrost or ice wedges have melted, causing trees to tilt at various angles. Some trees survive their soil eroding and continue to grow. Others collapse or drown as the subterranean ice melts. As they are staggered across the landscape, people often refer to them as 'drunken trees.'
Drunken Trees are also called, tilted trees or a drunken forest may also be caused by frost heaving, and subsequent palsa development, hummocks, earth flows, forested active rock glaciers, landslides, or earthquakes. In stands of spruce trees of equal age that germinated in the permafrost active layer after a fire. They tilting begin when the trees are 50 to 100 years old, suggesting that surface heaving from new permafrost aggradation can also create drunken forests.
What is Permafrost?
Permafrost soil or rock remains below 0 °C for at least two consecutive years. It forms a solid matrix in the soil which can spread to a depth of hundreds of meters. Permafrost is permanently frozen ground. Nonetheless, climate change has caused much of that ground to melt at an unprecedented rate. The ground buckles and sinks, causing trees to list at extreme angles. Further, the permafrost prevents trees from developing deep root systems. Also, those areas where the permafrost temperature is close to the melting point of water.
Drunken Trees Relations with Climate Change
The climate variations, or loss of surface vegetation from fire, flooding, construction, or deforestation, can thaw the upper extents of the permafrost. This is creating a thermokarst, “the scientific name for a ground slump caused by melting permafrost”. The thermokarst undermines the shallow root bed of trees, triggering them to lean or fall. Thermokarst lakes are enclosed by a ring of drunken trees leaning toward the lake, which makes this land features simply identifiable. When permafrost melts, it affects a lot of erosion; a lot of trees can't stand up straight. If the erosion gets worse, everything goes with it.
Drunken trees may ultimately die from their displacement, and in ice-rich permafrost. The entire drunken forest ecosystem can be damaged by melting. Drunken trees are not totally new phenomenon dendrochronological evidence can date thermokarst tilting back to at least the 19th century. Permafrost is naturally in disequilibrium with climate, and much of the permafrost that remains is in a relict state. However, the rate of thawing has been increasing, and a great deal of the remaining permafrost is expected to thaw during the 21st century. At times the trees survive the pressure and continue growing, uprighting themselves to vertical. However, on the other side, trees collapsed or drown from rising water tables as subterranean ice melts. Because such trees seem to stagger across the landscape, people often call them "drunken trees."
Moreover, Al Gore cited drunken trees caused by melting permafrost in Alaska. This is as another evidence of global warming, as part of his presentation in the 2006 documentary film An Inconvenient Truth. Alike warming leading to permafrost thawing in neighboring Siberia has been credited to a combination of anthropogenic climate change, a cyclical atmospheric phenomenon known as the Arctic oscillation.

Moreover, the albedo positive feedbacks caused by both when melting ice expose bare ground and ocean which absorb, rather than reflect, solar radiation.  The melting permafrost isn’t just affecting the trees. But it is also having an enormous impact on the people that live and work in the zone. Thus, slumping land cracks pavement breaks pipelines, and causes sinkholes to open, swallowing roads, and buildings. Source: CP

Thursday, 11 April 2019

Nature's First Aid Kid

Be it a headache, an injury or a wound, our first instinct is to reach for a painkiller. But did you know that your kitchen holds several remedies to ease and manage pain and discomfort? The next time you need something to make you feel better, try some of nature’s own medication. Put Together a Natural First Aid Kit. Here's what you should keep on hand. 

Aloe Vera

Applying aloe vera on wounds helps them heal faster as glucomannan a compound in aloe vera fights inflammation and helps speed up the growth of healthy new cells.

Apple Cider Vinegar

A teaspoon of apple cider vinegar diluted in water is the ideal remedy for people suffering from heartburn on a regular basis. the mixture, taken at least half an hour before a meal, helps keeps acidity at bay for 24 hours. Apple cider vinegar contains acids like tartaric and malic acid that help breakdown fats and proteins, elements that cause acidity and acid reflux before the food reaches the esophagus.


A cup of blueberries a day helps fight UTIs (Urinary tract infections) or bladder infections as they contain a compound known as tannin that doesn’t let bacteria latch onto the wall of the bladder to cause infections.

Buttered Vegetables

Latest research shows that consuming your veggies with a dash of butter helps absorbs carotenoids better boost your immune system thereby fighting commons colds more effectively.


Eating at least 20 cherries daily helps fight chronic pain caused by arthritis, headaches, gout, etc. Cherries contain anthocyanins that help fight inflammation. Research suggests that by eating cherries daily you can cut back on medicines and help ease the pain to a minimum.


This is not an old wives tale; cloves or clove ail is known to make toothache disappear for at least two hours. Cloves contain a compound known as eugenol that has powerful anesthetic properties;

Fish Oil

Fish oil contains two essential omega 3 fatty acids EPA and DHA that help fight inflammation. Research shows that people suffering from chronic pains such as rheumatoid arthritis, sinusitis, joint pain, and swelling were able to reduce their drug intake once they started a regimen of fish oil supplements. Eating fish regularly also helps people with gastrointestinal troubles such as frequent indigestion, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, etc.


Garlic oil does wonders for earache as it contains compounds known as allicin that helps fight bacteria, especially in the ear.


Ginger helps soothe muscle and joint pains by blocking pain-triggering hormones. Add two teaspoons of ginger to your meals daily for at least two months to reap the benefits of gingerols, the component in ginger that helps block pain.


If you are suffering from mouth sores, try dabbing the sores with honey; it contains natural compounds that fight inflammation faster than any other medicine for mouth sores.


Two glasses of lemonade a day can help prevent kidney stones. Lemons contain citrate that breaks up calcium in the urine and prevents it from depositing in the kidneys.


Start your mornings with a bowlful of oats and see your endometrial pain fall sharply within six months. Oats are gluten free, and gluten is the main cause of pain in endometriosis.


Pineapples contain proteolytic enzymes that aid in speedy digestion and break down of proteins. A cup of pineapples daily can cut down bloating and flatulence within 72 hours.


Remember how, when you were a child, your grandma made you drink a glass of milk with turmeric in it whenever you injured yourself? Turmeric contains a compound known as curcumin that blocks pain producing hormones. Latest research shows that people given turmeric in their diet had a drastic fall in pain related to arthritis and fibromyalgia; some studies suggest it may be more effective than ibuprofen.

Vitamin D

Research showed that some people experiencing chronic pain also suffers from low levels of vitamin D and that they experienced a drastic drop in the severity of pain when their vitamin D levels were raised. Sunshine is an excellent source of vitamin D as it helps produce this nutrient naturally walks in the sun is an ideal way to boost your vitamin D.


If you have excessively dry skin, try eating walnuts as they contain powerful omega 3 fatty acids that help nourish the skin.


Eating at least two cups daily can help ease PMS symptoms by almost 50%. Yogurt contains calcium that helps soothe the nervous system even hormonal influx. Source: CP

Wednesday, 3 April 2019

Top 25 Oak Facts

  • 1.       As you know, Oak is a tree or shrub. It belongs to genus Quercus of the beech family, Fagaceae.
  • 2.       There are approximately more than 600 species of Oaks.
  • 3.      Mexico contains the largest number of Oak Species, has 160 species of which 109 are endemic. While China contains 200 species, and 90 occurring in the United States.  One of the most beautiful oak trees is northern red oak (Quercus rubra). That’s leaves have a unique red color. Red oak is also the State tree of New Jersey.
  • 4.       In spring, Oaktree produces both male and female flowers.
  • 5.       The fruit is oak nut borne called an acorn,  a cup-like structure known as a cupule takes 6 to 18 months to mature, depending on their species.
  • 6.       Oaks have spirally arranged leaves, with lobate margins in many species; some have serrated leaves or entire leaves with smooth margins.
  • 7.       Oak Tree survives in various forests, temperate climates, Mediterranean and tropical areas.
  • 8.       Oak Trees are prone to fungal diseases, which may induce rotting of the inner part of the plant.
  • 9.       Also, 78 species of oaks trees are listed as endangered because of the habitat destruction, over-exploitation, diseases, and introduction of invasive species.
  • 10.   Oak trees can reach 75 feet in height and 9 feet in width and their branches can stretch to 145 feet in length.
  • 11.   Oak trees are usually large in size. One of the biggest oak trees is located in Goose Island State Park. This oak is 45 feet tall, 35 feet wide; with a crown that has 90 feet in diameter.
  • 12.   Due to massive size Oat Tree need a large amount of water per day, it has the ability to absorb 50 gallons of water each day.
  • 13.   The Leaves of Oak trees can be lobed, serrated or flat on the edges, however, in some species the leaves are bristles.
  • 14.   One of the interesting Oak Facts is it produces both male and female flowers. Male flowers are arranged in clusters called catkins. Female flowers are much smaller.
  • 15.   The Oat tree fruit is called acorn, and production starts at the age of 20 to 25 years.
  • 16.   Oak Tree produces over 2,000 acorns each year, but 1 in 10,000 acorns will grow up into an Oak tree.
  • 17.   Many animals like, ducks, deer, squirrels, woodpeckers, rats, mice, pigeons, and bears feed on acorns.
  • 18.   The Oak Tree wood is very hard and strong, normally used in the manufacturing of Yamaha drums, ships, furniture, cosmetic creams, and floorings materials. Oakwood is also using in special aroma to some beverages. s
  • 19.   Oak Tree is the national plant of several countries like USA, France, England, Germany, Poland, Latvia, and Serbia.
  • 20.   Oak Tree symbolizes strength and endurance. They feed various living creatures with their leaves and acorns.
  • 21.   Young Acorns, leaves, and buds contain tannic acid that entices toxic effects in cattle. Tannic acid induces the formation of ulcers, Kidney damaged and result in malformation in the newly born cattle.
  • 22.   Most of Oak species live more than 200 years, but few trees that have the ability to survive over a thousand years.
  • 23.   Oak trees played a vital role in human history. They built their homes, manufacturing tools, and constructed.
  • 24.   The largest living oak tree is located in Mandeville, Louisiana. The oldest known living oak trees with an estimated age of 1,500 years.
  • 25.   The aging of wine in the oak barrels was the historic practice of famous winemakers. It is still practiced in our days

Source: CP

Saturday, 29 December 2018

Crop Circles! Forest Experiment in Making of Half a Century

Have you ever listened about Crop Circles? In the recent times, Crop Circles have spotted in Japan’s Miyazaki Prefecture. This experimental forest in Japan is creating quite a stir with its unique shape. They were formed by Japanese Cedar Trees, only viewable from above. The incredible photos of geometric designs emerged in a large mature forest. The researchers are confused to learn how these shaped emerged? The practical explanation was the result of a scientific experiment that spanned half a century.

The scenic natural formations aren’t the results of an alien invasion, but rather a well thought out a preplanned imitative. Back in 1973, Japan’s Forestry and Fisheries (Ministry of Agriculture) started a project dedicated an area of land near Nichinan City was making an ‘experimental forestry’.  The scientist planted circles of cedars with smaller inner circles expanding incrementally into larger radiuses to create 10 perfect rings. One of the experiments was to try and measure the effect of tree spacing on growth. The experiment was carried out by planting trees in 10-degree radial circles of varying diameters.

The Crop Circles are so attractive due to their concave shape.  It was an unexpected result of the experiment that would recommend tree density does indeed affect growth. The trees are due to be harvested almost five years but officials are now considering preserving the crop circles. These images are efforts of Google Earth, however, these are very dark. The more space equals less competition for resources such as water and sunlight. Hence, it’s easier for these outer trees to grow bigger and stronger while those on the inside fight it out amongst themselves.

Friday, 2 November 2018

The Incredible Rectangular Iceberg Floating Off Antarctica

Nature follows their own rules and laws, but sometimes results are often irregular and asymmetric like clouds and coastline and ocean waves. NASA scientists Jeremy Harbeck & his team were flying over the northern Antarctic Peninsula as part of Operation in October 2018. They saw an incredible IceBridge spotted precisely cut rectangular piece of the iceberg floating amidst a jumble of broken ice, everybody thought it was pretty interesting.
Because such type of rectangular formation is called a “tabular iceberg”. It's a supernatural occurrence; it's amazing, but nothing out of ordinary. I had seen many icebergs around Antarctica that have very straight, very long sides," he said. These tabular icebergs are wide and flat, and long, like a sheet cake.
Thus the ice breaks according to its crystalline structure in a straight line. The walls of this new iceberg are sharp and almost perfectly vertical, suggesting they formed recently. As time goes on, waves will start to erode these edges, creating large arches and caving in its walls. The cold air and sea temperatures mean they melt slowly, and large icebergs can survive for many years.
Normally icebergs with relatively straight edges are common, this was the first time anybody has seen an iceberg with two corners at right angles. They split from the edges of ice shelves like fingernails breaking off when they grow too long. The iceberg will also continue to break and crack, losing chunks of ice around the edge, and possibly even fragmenting into smaller pieces. These fracture lines can form interesting geometric structures like rectangles and triangles.

We often see icebergs with geometric shapes, although such a perfect rectangle is admittedly unusual. This specific rectangular iceberg is about one mile wide, and it had just broken off from the Larsen C ice shelf. NASA aims to better understand the connection between earth’s polar regions and the global climate. In spite of its eerily perfect shape, this iceberg is completely natural, and in fact not even that unusual. The largest iceberg ever observed, named B-15, was released from Antarctica in 2000, and some fragments of it still exist today near the island of South Georgia.


Friday, 7 September 2018

The Bat with Long Ears

The name of the Bat with Long Ears is an understatement: the ears are huge almost as long as the rest of the body and they play a vital role in the detection of prey. Of all the British bats, the long-eared is the most distinctive. No other mammal has ears that are nearly as long as its body. In fact, the ears of the long-eared bat are so big that they can often be seen even when it is in flight making identification easy. With its long, soft fur, large eyes and delicate wings, it is a quiet attractive mammal with inoffensive habits.

Echo location! A Bat with Long Ears finds its way about in the dark by means of echo location. It emits high intensity, ultrasonic sounds (too high-pitched for us to hear). Which are reflected from objects in its path? From the patterns of the remaining echoes the bat can interpret its surroundings and avoid flying into obstacles.

The same mechanism is used to catch insect prey. Echoes bounce off even the smallest midge and alert the bat to the presence of a potential meal. All British bats are capable of intercepting flying insects in this way, and probably compete for similar prey. But this leaves a whole range of suitable food items untouched the insects, caterpillars and spiders.

Which do not fly but crawl about among tree-top vegetation instead? Most bats fly too fast to notice these creatures, and in any case probably cannot differentiate between the echo of, say, a caterpillar and the leaf on which it is resting.

This is where the long-eared bat comes into its own. Instead of emitting loud echo location sounds which just bounce off foliage indiscriminately, this bat whispers. Its ultrasonic noises are so quiet and sensitive that it can tell the difference between an echo from an insect and what it is sitting on. The huge ears detect these minute echoes, and also

The Bat with Long Ears is a nocturnal mammal, foraging by night. In flight the sensitive ears are held erect, directed forwards so they can detect insect prey by echo location. When the bat is at rest or crawling about, the ears crinkle along their outer edges and are then lowered over the shoulders.

There are two long-eared bats in Britain, the common and the grey. The grey (Plecotus austriacus) is very difficult to distinguish from the common and there are no external features which provide positive identification of every specimen.

Generally speaking the grey long-eared bat has darker fur than the common, which is browner. The presence of the grey was overlooked in Britain until 1963, and even now little is known about it. So far it has been identified only in southern England, though it may be more widespread.

Distinguish between sounds reflected from different textures, such as a soft insect larva and a smooth leaf. The sounds are made and the echoes interpreted in a split second during flight a remarkable feat since it involves only part of the bat's brain, the whole of which is smaller than a pea.

Foraging! The task of catching insects is made easier for the long-eared bat by its ability to hover at an angle of 300. The long-eared bat can pick food delicately and precisely off foliage and bark, and perhaps even from the ground. As well as the usual flying insects, its diet therefore includes a whole range of invertebrates gleaned from trees which other bats do not manage to exploit.

In late summer especially, the Bat with Long Ears takes large numbers of noctuid moths, snapped up on the wing and carried off to a convenient perch to be dismembered and eaten. Usually the moth wings and legs are discarded, and a little heap of such litter accumulates below the perch.

Attic Nurseries

The Bat with Long Ears habit of using feeding roosts near human habitation, and its ability to hover and fly in confined spaces make it likely to be one of the species that flies into bedrooms at night through open windows. It is difficult to be more precise since few people favored by such a visit stop to check the identity of the intruder.

The Bat with Long Ears mostly roosts in attics. Groups of up to two dozen females gather in attics in summer to bear their young. They are usually so quiet that they easily pass un-noticed by the householder, and can raise their young undisturbed. Attics make good bat nurseries because they are warm.  Higher temperatures mean faster growth and development for the young.

On cool days the bats huddle together to warm their offspring. Such a colony does no harm, and may help to keep the roof space clear of moths, spiders and destructive beetles. The young are born in June and July. Each female never has more than one baby a year and none at all in some years. The population thus increases only slowly. When a colony is wiped out it may take a decade to recoup.

A low breeding rate is characteristic of bats probably because their babies are so big. Each weighs nearly a third as much as its mother at birth. Under natural conditions bats do not need to produce large numbers of offspring as they have few predators to Fear. The long-eared, For example, is occasionally taken by owls and cats, but is otherwise safe except from destruction by humans.

Adult males do not usually roost with nursing females, and take no part in rearing the young. They meet up with the females again once the young have been weaned and the nursery colony has dispersed for the winter.

Three-month hibernation like other insectivorous animals, the long-eared bat faces a critical shortage of food once the colder nights of autumn begin. Two options are open to it. Either they flying south to warmer places, or staying put and drastically reducing energy requirements by hibernating.

It seems that Bat with Long Ears normally hibernate, often staying close to where they have spent the summer months. They usually hibernate in trees and buildings; though sometimes use caves, mines and other similarly cool places. Their preferred hibernating temperature is probably about 0°C (32°F).

Bat with Long Ears would be forced into unnecessary and unwelcome activity if they hibernated.  Somewhere that became too warm on sunny winter days. Winter activity is undesirable because there is little chance of recouping the fat reserves used to provide energy for flight.

If the bat finds a suitable place, it may well hibernate for over three months. During hibernation the large ears pose a problem. Precarious moisture may evaporate from their large surface and, even when this difficulty is avoided by the choice of a cool, humid place to pass the winter, they a vulnerable to frostbite.

The ears could get in the way if the hat wanted to crawl into a more sheltered crevice, so the problem is solved by folding the ears backwards. Hibernation ends in March in the south of England, probably later in the north though this varies with the prevailing weather.

Mating takes place soon after hibernation ends or perhaps earlier during periods of wakefulness in winter. When they wake up the hats start feeding to recoup the .2O or more of lost weight.

Nocturnal Sorties

Long-eared bats become active within the day roost at about sunset every night. They are emerging from the nooks and crannies where they have passed the day. They may spend up to an hour or so making short flights and grooming their silky fur. If the long fine fur becomes matted, it loses its insulation, stream-lining and rain-proofing properties. Once it is fully dark the hats go out to forage.

Sometimes they stay out all night at other times especially if there is plenty of food about. If there are babies to be fed they may return within the hour.  Perhaps they are making another sortie later. Long-eared bats normally manage to find all the food they need without having to fly far from home.

Occasionally, some Bat with Long Ears hats appear to make extensive journeys out to sea. They have turned up among night-migrating birds attracted to offshore lighthouses, in 1%8 one was found dead on a lightship in the North Sea, 31 miles out from Great Yarmouth. Source: CP